This is kind of a loaded question, and the answer is "terrible." I'll explain why, but the take away from this posting is that if you are facing federal child pornography charges, your long-term liberty is at considerable risk.
Let's start by understanding sentencing guidelines. Felony sentencing in Virginia, and Class A misdemeanor and all felony sentencing in the federal courts, are handled through what are called "sentencing guidelines." Prior to 1995 in Virginia and prior to 1984 in the federal system, judges were bound only by statutory maximums and minimums in determining sentences. Since few charges carry mandatory minimums, judges had tremendous discretion in determining sentences. Judges could consider the nature of the offense and the offender's characteristics in deciding a sentence that suited the particular crime. This degree of judicial autonomy was a time honored part of our jurisprudence, dating back to the Magna Carta in England. This system wasn't perfect, and certainly some judges would treat the same offense differently than others, but it was generally accepted as the best option available.
This all changed with the implementation of federal sentencing guidelines in the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. This act created the U.S. Sentencing Commission and mandated federal guidelines which would take into consideration aggravating and mitigating factors about the offense and the offender, and thereby produce a sentence range. Initially, these guidelines were mandatory, in other words, the judge could not divert upward or downward from the guidelines. However, the Supreme Court held in 2005 in
United States v. Booker that the guidelines were only discretionary, and that while they might provide guidance to the sentencing judge, he was able to depart from them in appropriate cases.
Today virtually every state has some form of sentencing guidelines, and Virginia is no exception.
The basic premise is to create a fairer criminal justice system by fostering consistency and predictability in sentencing. However, in practical terms, sentencing in federal child pornography possession charges has become consistently outrageous and predictably draconian. I have handled child pornography cases in Virginia and federal courts, and have seen federal guidelines for the same child pornography possession offense calculated at as much as ten times the recommended state guidelines. I have also handled child pornography cases in military courts, where there are no sentencing guidelines at all. Interestingly enough, it has been my experience that military courts typically adjudge the most lenient sentences in these cases, perhaps because the court can consider all the aggravating and mitigating factors without being hamstrung by sentencing guidelines.
There is no question, though, that federal child pornography possession guidelines are the most severe.
Here's why: Federal sentencing guidelines were designed to be promulgated by the U.S. Sentencing Commission based upon data collected from previous sentences. In other words, the sentencing guidelines did not come directly from Congress, but rather from the Sentencing Commission which was chartered by Congress to produce carefully considered guidelines. However, largely as a result of political pressure, Congress has on numerous occasions directly amended the sentencing guidelines for possession of child pornography to make them considerably worse; all without considering input from the Sentencing Commission. Interestingly, possession of child pornography is the only offense for which Congress has directly amended the guidelines. All other guidelines have been promulgated by the Sentencing Commission, and not directly from Congress.
Predictably, Congress has taken the politically expedient route of making the guidelines for possession of child pornography unbelievably severe. So severe, in fact, that in many cases, the sentencing guidelines for simple possession of child pornography in the federal system are more severe than the guidelines for having actually engaged in the sexual abuse depicted in the pornography! This result defies belief, but it is a product of Congressional meddling in this complex field, as well as the morbid popularity of shows like "To Catch a Predator."
Here's what Congress has done: It has more than doubled the base offense level for possession of child pornography from 10 in 1991 to 22 in 2011. On top of that, they have added a 2 point increase for use of a computer (virtually all child pornography exchange today occurs online, so this almost always applies). They have added a 5 point increase for distributing images with the "expectation of something of value" (receiving an image from someone else on a peer to peer network qualifies for this increase, so this increase almost always applies). There is a 4 level increase for images depicting bondage or violence, and another 5 level increase for possession of more than 600 images. Because this material is now distributed primarily online, an individual can assemble a collection of more than 600 images in a matter of minutes, and almost invariably this collection will include images depicting bondage or violence, regardless of whether the individual is seeking this type of material.
Furthermore, even if the individual may not have ever viewed or even have been aware of the content of these images, he will still be accountable for these increases in offense level.
The result of this Congressional meddling is that most federal possession of child pornography cases will produce guidelines at or near the statutory maximum of 20 years.
Meanwhile, state guidelines remain considerably more reasonable, although much of that will depend upon how the prosecutor decides to charge the case. This is because each image can constitute a separate charge, so the prosecutor can decide how many charges he wishes to bring based upon the volume of the collection.
If you or someone you love is facing a possession of child pornography charge, contact us right away. Time is of the essence in developing a defense in these types of cases. We handle both state and federal child pornography cases, and are ready to defend you!